Comparison of the Experimental and predicting Data of Drying Characteristics of Cocoa Pod Using Cabinet Dryer at Different Temperature

International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) | Volume VI, Issue III, March 2021|ISSN 2454-6194

Comparison Of The Experimental And Predicting Data Of Drying Characteristics Of Cocoa Pod Using Cabinet Dryer At Different Temperature

Adeosun, Y.M, Koyenikan, O.O, and Lasisi, M.O
Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering, The Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti.

Abstract
Cocoa pod husks serve as potential sources of disease transmission in cocoa farms when it is not properly handled, Therefore, quick-drying is essential to prevent deterioration. This study evaluated the drying characteristics of cocoa pod husk as affected by drying at different temperatures 700C, 800C and 900C and the effect of the drying system. This was achieved by developing a mathematical model in a cabinet dryer. The change in moisture content of the cocoa pod husk was monitored at regular intervals of 30min until the moisture content of the sample became constant. The result shows that the drying rates were higher for the highest temperature (90oC) used in this experiment and decreases with the decrease in dry air temperatures. The model was then validated with the data obtained from the cabinet dryer and there was no significant difference between the experimental drying rate and predicted values at 5%level significance. Midili kucuk (0.989 ≤ R2 ≤ 0.998) and Hii et al (0.983 ≤ R2 ≤ 0.996,) models were selected as the best model for predicting the drying characteristics of cocoa pod.

Keyword: Experimental, Data, Modelling, Predicting, Cocoa pod, husks and Drying

1. Introduction
The cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is the most prominent in the market among the 22 species of the Theobroma genusandis also claimed to be the only commercially cultivated (World Agriculture, 2011).Cocoa belongs to the Sterculiaceae family; is one of the most important tropical crops worldwide. In animal feeding trials, one of the agro by-products that have optimum results is cocoa pod husk meal (Barnes et al., 1985). The cocoa pod husk is one of these by-products which is about 75% weight of the whole fruit (Laconi, 2015 and Aregbgheore, 2002).Unfortunately, these cocoa pod husks are left and discarded on the cocoa plantation transmitting diseases such as black pod rot, producing foul odors, polluting the environment, etc. (Forero-Nunez et al., 2015 and

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The Assessment Of Student Misconceptions Of Newton’s Laws Of Motion Using Force Concept Inventory Achievement Test Among Undergraduates In Ondo State, Nigeria.

International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) | Volume VI, Issue III, March 2021|ISSN 2454-6194

The Assessment Of Student Misconceptions Of Newton’s Laws Of Motion Using Force Concept Inventory Achievement Test Among Undergraduates In Ondo State, Nigeria.

Akinnubi R.T1, Aramide J.O.1, Oladun C.E1,Ipinlaye A.B2,Osuporu B. I1,and Ikusika A1
1Department of Physics, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo.
2Department of Mathematics, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo.

 

Abstract
The study was conducted to determine the assessment of students’ misconception of Newton’s Law of motion using Force Concept Inventory (FCI) achievement test in some selected tertiary institutions in Ondo State. A validated Force Concept Inventory (FCI), (r = 0.97) questionnaire was administered on 450 students in the selected tertiary institutions in the state. The data collected wereanalysed with mean, standard deviation and T-test Statistics at 5% level of significance. The findings revealedthat students like force as a topic despite their little exposure to experiments on Newton’s Third Law.The findings further revealed that there was a significant difference in the mean scores of pre-test and post-test performance in Force Concept Inventory(FCI) based on gender (T-value = 3.94, p<0.05). It was discovered that the male students performed better in force than female students. Also, there was a significant difference in the mean score of pre-test and post-test performance in Force Concept Inventory(FCI) based on school type (T- value = 6.70,p<0.05). It was discovered that private student performed better in the concept of force. This is, therefore, recommendation that there should be current information (data) or an idea on teacher conception of the concept of force and motion.

KEYWORDS: Misconception, Motion, Force, Inventory, Achievement

Introduction
A sufficient background and knowledge in Physics is required for the furtherance and progression of Science and Technology in our society. It is important for Physics students to acquire the appropriate understanding of the different Physics terms (concepts) which they are being taught in schools so as to utilize this education in their daily activities (Omosewo, 2007). Over the last decade, the performance of students in Physics have been unsatisfactory as an analysis of this performance shows a decreasing course(Omoifo, 2012).The West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) Chief Examiners’ Reports(WAEC, 2008) showed that students’ shortcoming in Physics were attributed to insufficient knowledge of the fundamental principles, ideas, laws and their suitable applications to explaining and solving Physics problems. These are as a result

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Impact Of National Economic Empowerment And Development Strategy (Needs) On Rural Women: A Case Study Of Yelwa Na Farko In Mubi, Adamawa State-Nigeria.

International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) | Volume VI, Issue III, March 2021|ISSN 2454-6194

Impact Of National Economic Empowerment And Development Strategy (Needs) On Rural Women: A Case Study Of Yelwa Na Farko In Mubi, Adamawa State-Nigeria.

Hasiya Salihu1, Hamisu Ali2
1Department of Political and Public Administration, Faculty of Social and Management Sciences
2Department of Economics, Faculty of Social and Management Sciences

Abstract
This paper examines the impact of National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) on Yelwa Na Farko Development Association in Mubi North Local Government Area, by looking at the contribution the NEEDS had made on the rural women in understanding their goals in term of self-reliance in the study area. This study used primary data collection from the respondents through the use of questionnaire and interview; two hundred and eighty questionnaires (280) were distributed and two hundred and fifty questionnaires (250) were successfully returned which recorded (89%) of returned. The study employed simple percentage to analyse the data collected. The result obtained depicts that there is serious discrimination, lack of sufficient capital among the rural women in the study area. The study recommends that; government should breach the gap of discrimination (gender equality) among the rural women, government should provide working capital for rural women and also government should include them in all their decision such as commercial activities, politics and awareness coaching among themselves.

Keywords: Rural Women, NEEDS, Economic Empowerment, Strategy

Introduction
National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) became advanced through the National Planning Commission, through then headed by Professor Charles Soludo. The Federal Executive Council of Nigeria as a poverty softening approach recommended it. The purpose of the scheme became to fulfil the Millennium Development Goals of curtailing the risk of poverty in Nigeria and bringing it to the barest minimal through the year 2015. National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy is a manner of letting the International Community realize wherein Nigeria stands within side the vicinity and the international, and the way it desires to be supported. In searching on the opportunities of National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) in assembly the aspirations of Nigerians, we should now no longer fail to nation that NEEDS specifically, addresses the global Development Targets (IDTs), which had been set in 1996 to enhance monetary wellbeing, social and human

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Impacts and Determinants of Urban Village Redevelopment/ Transformation in Nigeria

International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) | Volume VIII, Issue IV, April 2021 | ISSN 2321–2705

Impacts And Determinants of Urban Village Redevelopment/Transformation Innigeria

Ubani Princewill1, Edidiong Elijah Usip 2, Bumaa Felix Neeka3
1Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Ken Saro – Wiwa Polytechnic Bori, Nigeria
2Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic Ikot Osurua Nigeria
3Department of Architecture Ken Saro – Wiwa Polytechnic Bori, Nigeria

Abstract
The urbanisation of urban villages has been phenomenal triggered by over concentration of anthropogenic activities that degraded all the facet of the area through the development of slum and shanty settlements. This decay and dilapidation however, is accompanied by serious population pressure and total neglect of redevelopment investors. This research determines the redevelopment of urban villages in Port Harcourt Nigeria. Data for this study were obtained acquired from both primary and secondary sources. The result of the analysis indicated that environmental impact of urban renewal beaconed on (r = 385, P< 0.5), economic advantages (r = 302 P< 0.5), social impact (r = 205, P< 0.5), physical impact recorded (r = 225, P< 0.5) are the key significant impact of redevelopment and right direction for elimination of slums and shanty in villages that constitute the present and typical urban settlement in developing nation. The findings also revealed that government institutions accounted (49.9%), global bodies on environment (22.1%) non-governmental organisation (6.1%), communal effort (10.7%) and environmental philanthropist are the key urban village redevelopment investors in Nigeria. This is the only way to ensure sustainability of urban villages and improve the resident’s quality life in the geographical region.

Keywords: Determinants, Impacts, urban Village, Redevelopment, Transformation and Nigeria

Introduction

The strategic alternatives and the general structure that prearranged how urban villages should be revived universally have gone through a succession of developmental period. Nowadays, numerous procedural outlines exist to verify to the fact that government have initiated concentrated measures to increase the regeneration of urban villages. Most developing countries recorded stress in their urban villagers in terms of human population, environmental decay, squatter’s settlement and presence of slum in last three decades. In reaction to the difficulty, the world has developed many approaches

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Household Coping Strategies For Unreliable Water Supplies In Nzoia River Basin, Kenya

International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) | Volume VIII, Issue IV, April 2021 | ISSN 2321–2705

Household Coping Strategies For Unreliable Water Supplies In Nzoia River Basin, Kenya

Ernest Othieno Odwori
Department of Disaster Management and Sustainable Development, School of Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 190-50100, Kakamega, Kenya.

Abstract
Nzoia River Basin lies entirely within Kenya along the border with Uganda in the Lake Victoria Basin, and has a population of about 3.7 million people that is rising rapidly with increased water demand. Majority of the people live in rural areas. Unreliable water supplies is a common feature in many developing countries and it threatens the health of millions of people around the world. This study examines the household coping strategies to unreliable water supplies and the factors influencing the choice of strategies in Nzoia River Basin. A cross-sectional research design was used in the study. Three counties were randomly selected from the basin for study with Busia representing the lower catchment, Kakamega middle catchment and Trans Nzoia upper catchment. The study used questionnaire surveys, in-depth expert interviews with selected stakeholders from the water sector, academia and scientists and field observations to examine the Household coping strategies for unreliable water supplies in the basin. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study identified 18 household coping strategies to unreliable water supplies in the basin. Households use more than one strategy to cope with the problem of unreliable water supplies. There are some strategies which are adopted by large numbers of households whereas the others have only a few households using them. Water storage through storage tanks, roof tanks, drums, pots, buckets and bottles is the most preferred strategy by households followed by collecting water from alternative sources such as springs, rivers, dams and wells; using water sparingly/ limiting water use; treating water through boiling, filtration and chlorination; and drilling wells and boreholes. Strategies like improving water quality; enhancing pressure; rainwater harvesting in the rainy season; installing booster pumps, electrical and hand pumps; installing extra storage space; rescheduling major household activities to when water is available; buying water from neighbors, private tankers, donkey-cart owners, bottled water; moving to another house or area estate with water and community fundraising for construction of water supply are also important to the households in addressing problems of unreliable water supplies in the basin. Other strategies like recycling water; protesting and complaining to authorities; economizing on water use by reduced frequency of baths and economizing on water use by reduced number of meals in a day or altered diet are less important. The choice of household coping strategies used against unreliable water supplies was found to be influenced by socio-economic status: income, education; land tenure and lack of reliability. Unreliable/intermittent water supplies have imposed significant coping burdens to households in the basin. Assessing household coping strategies to unreliable water supplies and the factors influencing the choice of strategies in the basin will provide valuable insights for policy makers, water service providers and national and county governments while planning for improved water supply services. The findings of this study are important to the national and county governments within Nzoia River Basin as it provides a major shift from focusing on water supplies coverage (now widely used in the basin) to improvements in the quality of services anchored on water supplies reliability. This is the focus of the Sustainable development goals, target 6.1, which aims at achieving universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all by the year 2030.

Keywords: Nzoia River Basin, Household coping strategies, Unreliable water supplies, Factors influencing choice of strategies.

1.0 Introduction
Domestic water supply that is sufficient, reliable, and of good quality is a basic requirement for all human beings. Unsafe domestic water supply is one of the key problems facing developing countries, threatening the health of millions of people around the world. It is projected that improvements in water supply, sanitation, and hygiene could prevent 10% of the overall global burden of disease. Inadequate water supply, sanitation, and hygiene are responsible for 88 percent of diarrhea cases worldwide, resulting in 1.5 million preventable deaths per year, mostly among children. Water supply, sanitation

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The Pattern Of Cervical Histology Among Women With Human Immunodeficiency Virus In Fection Receiving Care At A Terciary Centre In South-South Nigeria

International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) | Volume VIII, Issue IV, April 2021 | ISSN 2321–2705

The Pattern Of Cervical Histology Among Women With Human Immunodeficiency Virus In Fection Receiving Care At A Terciary Centre In South-South Nigeria

Sapira-Ordu Leesi1, Sapira Monday Komene2
1Department Of Obstetrics And Gynaecology, Rivers State University Teaching Hospital, Forces Avenue, Port Harcourt.
2Department Urology, University Of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt.

ABSTRACT
BACKGROUND
The transitional area of the cervix has variable histological features due to constant changes following irritation by hormones, infection as well as trauma. These changes range from squamous metaplasia to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cancers. Women with HIV infection are prone to premalignant and malignant lesions of the cervix due to immunosuppression and persistent co-infection with the highly oncogenic human papilloma virus serotypes. They are therefore thought to be sexually transmitted and they contribute significantly to reproductive ill-health and mortality among women.
OBJECTIVE
This was to determine the actual prevalence of precancerous and cancerous lesions of the cervix using histological assessment among HIV positive women receiving care at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), Alakahia between August and June 2015.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
One hundred HIV positive women on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were recruited randomly for the study with an uptake rate of 96%. Informed consent was obtained and data collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. They all had cervical biopsies and the specimens were processed by the histotechnologist and reported by the histopathologist. Data analysis was done using SPSS.
RESULTS
The mean age of patients was 37.0 ± 6.6 years and the mean age of those with dysplasia was 38.1 ± 6.6 years. The age range of the patients was 21-56 years with the highest number of respondents (27.1%) in the 30- 34 years group. This was closely followed by 35-39 years with 26.0%. Majority of the patients (49.0%) were married and the others were either single, divorced or widowed. Most of the patients had at least secondary education (38.5% and 37.5% for tertiary and secondary levels of education respectively). The parous women weresixty (62.5%) while the nulliparous women were thirty six(37.5%).Thirty-four (35.4%) of the respondents had their first sexual intercourse before eighteen years of age while fifty-five (57.3%) had it after the age of eighteen. Seven (7.3%) had no idea of their age at first sexual exposure. Nineteen (19.8%) of them had five or more lifetime sexual partners while sixty-six (68.8%) had two to four sexual partners. Six (6.2%) have had one and five (5.2%) did not respond.Seventeen (17.7%) of the respondents had CD4 counts less than 250 cells/mm3, thirty (31.3%) had values between 250 to 499 cells/mm3 while forty-nine (51.0%) had 500 cells/mm3 and above. Thirty-six (37.5%) were normal, twenty (20.8%) had cervicitis, twenty-three (24.0%) had CIN I, ten (10.4%) had CIN II, six (6.3%) had CIN III and one (1.0%) had endocervical polyp.
CONCLUSION: There is need for women with HIV infection to be screened regularly considering the high prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia among them.

Key Words: Cervical, histology, HIV, CIN, malignancy, pattern, South-South, women.

INTRODUCTION

The cervix is the lowermost portion of the uterus whichis composed mainly of fibrous tissues with an average of 10 to 15% of smooth muscle fibers. It is covered by stratified squamous epithelium up to the internal os where it changes abruptly to the columnar type. This transitional area, also known as the transformation zone has variable histological features which change constantly following irritation, hormonal changes as well as infection and trauma. Thus, this zone is predisposed to severe dysplasia, carcinoma in situ and even invasive carcinoma.1
Worldwide, cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women with an estimate of approximately 570,000 new cases and 311,000 deaths (in 2018) with a standardized incidence of 13.1 per 100,000 women.2 More than 85% of the global burden of the disease occur in the low and middle income countries.3

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Increasing Cases Of Online Non-Consensual Posting Of Adult Male Nude Pictures And Videos In Zambia: Views From Rural And Urban Dwellers

International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) | Volume V, Issue III, March 2021 | ISSN 2454–6186

Increasing Cases Of Online Non-Consensual Posting Of Adult Male Nude Pictures And Videos In Zambia: Views From Rural And Urban Dwellers

Jordan Tembo1, Patricia Mambwe2
1kalindawalo General Hospital, P.O.Box 560008, Petauke, Zambia
2Department Of Nursing, School Of Health Sciences, Rusangu University, Monze, Zambia

Abstract
The internet and other digital communication platforms have almost entirely erased affinity and use of the snail mail. As societies get immersed in the use of these technologies, reality sink in that the internet and other online programmes are in fact a cradle of jaw-dropping non-consensual posting of nude photos and videos calculated to damage victims’ reputation before the wider society so that they are eternally killed socially. This negative social behaviour is rapidly gaining ground in Zambia. The problem is even of an emergency in nature. It demands extensive academic inquiry and cure because adult males who in the traditional Zambian culture are regarded as custodians and mentors of social norms and cultural values of the young generation are being exposed through non-consensual dissemination of their nude photos and videos online. Between July, 2020 and February 2021 a series of postings online of private photos and videos of adult males filled the social landscape. The objective of this study was to explore views from 30 rural and urban dwellers on this strange social behaviour. The study used a cross-sectional design with a qualitative approach. It was conducted between January and February, 2021. Using a single-interview- per participant, the study found that urbanites in Zambia were aware of what online intimacy was. The study found that adult males engaged in online intimacy for play and pleasure, or because they were caught up in an unsatisfying, boring and unhappy marriage relationships. The study also found that extortion, black mail, and revenge were the reasons for the dissemination of intimate explicit material of others without their consent.

Key words: society, non-consensual, pornography, nudity, intimancy, online

Introduction

Technological advancement has sparked societies to function at a higher social and economical plane. Electronic communication and the internet have pressed societies to unimaginable social transformation. But the internet has also splashed negative social behaviours across societies. One such deviant behaviour is the posting and disseminating of personal nude images and videos of others without their consent with the intention to cause distress (Sepec 2019:1; Bloom, 2014). The internet and social media platforms afford users to share or disseminate nude pictures and videos of themselves or of consenting or non-consenting others (Budde, 2014). Scholars have defined the behaviour of posting nude images or videos of an adult without consent as ‘non-consensual pornography,’ ‘I mage- Based Abuse,’ ‘involuntary porn’ (Budde, 2014; Franklin, 2014). Non-consensual pornography is defined as ‘sexually explicit images or videos of a person posted online without that person’s consent especially as a form of revenge or harassment’ (Merriam-Webster online Dictionary, 2016). Scholars trace the behaviour of sharing sexual explicit images and

 

 

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Increasing Cases Of Online Non-Consensual Posting Of Adult Male Nude Pictures And Videos In Zambia: Views From Rural And Urban Dwellers

International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) | Volume V, Issue III, March 2021 | ISSN 2454–6186

Increasing Cases Of Online Non-Consensual Posting Of Adult Male Nude Pictures And Videos In Zambia: Views From Rural And Urban Dwellers

Jordan Tembo1, Patricia Mambwe2
1kalindawalo General Hospital, P.O.Box 560008, Petauke, Zambia
2Department Of Nursing, School Of Health Sciences, Rusangu University, Monze, Zambia

Abstract
The internet and other digital communication platforms have almost entirely erased affinity and use of the snail mail. As societies get immersed in the use of these technologies, reality sink in that the internet and other online programmes are in fact a cradle of jaw-dropping non-consensual posting of nude photos and videos calculated to damage victims’ reputation before the wider society so that they are eternally killed socially. This negative social behaviour is rapidly gaining ground in Zambia. The problem is even of an emergency in nature. It demands extensive academic inquiry and cure because adult males who in the traditional Zambian culture are regarded as custodians and mentors of social norms and cultural values of the young generation are being exposed through non-consensual dissemination of their nude photos and videos online. Between July, 2020 and February 2021 a series of postings online of private photos and videos of adult males filled the social landscape. The objective of this study was to explore views from 30 rural and urban dwellers on this strange social behaviour. The study used a cross-sectional design with a qualitative approach. It was conducted between January and February, 2021. Using a single-interview- per participant, the study found that urbanites in Zambia were aware of what online intimacy was. The study found that adult males engaged in online intimacy for play and pleasure, or because they were caught up in an unsatisfying, boring and unhappy marriage relationships. The study also found that extortion, black mail, and revenge were the reasons for the dissemination of intimate explicit material of others without their consent.

Key words: society, non-consensual, pornography, nudity, intimancy, online

Introduction

Technological advancement has sparked societies to function at a higher social and economical plane. Electronic communication and the internet have pressed societies to unimaginable social transformation. But the internet has also splashed negative social behaviours across societies. One such deviant behaviour is the posting and disseminating of personal nude images and videos of others without their consent with the intention to cause distress (Sepec 2019:1; Bloom, 2014). The internet and social media platforms afford users to share or disseminate nude pictures and videos of themselves or of consenting or non-consenting others (Budde, 2014). Scholars have defined the behaviour of posting nude images or videos of an adult without consent as ‘non-consensual pornography,’ ‘I mage- Based Abuse,’ ‘involuntary porn’ (Budde, 2014; Franklin, 2014). Non-consensual pornography is defined as ‘sexually explicit images or videos of a person posted online without that person’s consent especially as a form of revenge or harassment’ (Merriam-Webster online Dictionary, 2016). Scholars trace the behaviour of sharing sexual explicit images and

 

 

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