Succession Planning and Success in Family-owned Business Enterprise; A Case Study

International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) | Volume IV, Issue XII, December 2020 | ISSN 2454–6186

Succession Planning and Success in Family-owned Business Enterprise;
A Case Study

C. H. Wijayasinghe


The authorized and published papers revealed that the persistence of family businesses is controversial in the future. There is empirical evidence to prove the fact that only 30% of family businesses span to the second generation and that only about 10% to 15% survive by the third generation. The major reason for this failure is improper succession planning. The objective of this case story is to identify whether the existing succession process is durable enough to safe guard the future of the well-known Sri Lankan family-owned business called Harischandra Mills PLC. The Company has a long history of over seventy-three years along with a household brand name with quality assurance. While this case focuses on the generational differences and the leadership transformation pattern between the founder and the successors of Harischandra Mills PLC, it also offers some important guidance for the micro and macro perspectives in entrepreneurship. The leadership transformation gaps of Harischandra Mills PLC were explored by the researcher along with safety measures to ensure long-term success, as well as for a smoother transition of the leadership.The success of a family firm depends on its ability to maintain the stability of the business. Hence, it can be said that an effective succession strategy is vital for Harischandra Mills Ltd. to attain a higher level of business performance and to maintain long-term sustainability.

Key words: Succession planning, Family-owned business, Harischandra Mills PLC

Memories of a greater capitalist
C. A. Harischandra of Matara was a greater industrialist, known to everyone. He was born on 13th of November 1911 and was the fourth son of late Odiris De Silva, a respectable and reputed business magnet in Matara engaged in coconut oil milling. Harischandra had four brothers. He received his primary education at St. Thomas Boys School, Matara and secondary education at Ananda College, Colombo. In 1930 he entered the University College, Colombo and graduated in economics, and he obtained his Inter Commerce degree with credit. After his university education, he came back to Matara and started to run the Broadway Cinema Hall, a bookshop, and a printing press. In 1938 he married to Miss Cornelia Shanthi of Thihagoda, a textile weaving teacher at that time. His charming wife was his own selection and was a tower of strength to him. They had four daughters. Harischandra was a best-known social worker involved in educational, health and philanthropic activities. Harischandra died in 1985 at the age of 74 years.









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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) | Volume IV, Issue XII, December 2020 | ISSN 2454–6186


Corresponding Authors;
Ibrahim Makina  Phd candidate Kisii University Kenya


This study aimed at establishing the effect of working capital management on performance of commercial SMEs in Mombasa Kenya. Specific objectives were; to evaluate the influence of the optimum inventory management on performance of commercial SMEs in Mombasa county, to assess the effect of cash conversion cycle on performance of commercial SME’s in Mombasa County and to determine the effect of debtors management on performance of commercial SMEs in Mombasa County. The study employed descriptive survey research design. A population of 70 respondents was drawn from all the six sub-counties. Data was collected through questionnaires and interviews. Collected data was analyzed using multiple-regression analysis. Inferential statistics was used to determine the relationship between variables. It was revealed that there was a positive correlation between inventory management, cash conversion cycle and debts management and performance of commercial SMEs in Mombasa County. This study is important for the policy makers to come up with the strategies on how to better SMEs businesses.

1.1 Background of the Study
In basic terminology terms, working capital is the difference between current assets and current liabilities. Current assets constitute cash, receivables and inventory and are managed closely on a daily basis for a whole financial year whereby the mix must be optimal. Current liabilities are defined as claims against the business by third parties such as suppliers of goods, services and lenders of short term cash and other financial instruments. Proper turnover decision making for any organization with a working capital to realize targeted profit is usually a challenge to financial managers. An organization with a strong projection of finance in the long run will have problems in managing the working capital (Ha, Thanh & Hang 2016).







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Human Capital and Economic performance in Nigeria

International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) | Volume IV, Issue XII, December 2020 | ISSN 2454–6186

  Human Capital and Economic performance in Nigeria 

  FaizahAdhama Mukhtar, 1 Kabiru Sufi Sa’id2and Hadiza Nasir Iro3
Federal University Dutse, Jigawa State, 1 Kano State College of Education and Preliminary studies2&3


The study analyses the influence of human capital progress on economic performance in Nigeria usingEndogenous Growth modeland ARDL approach from 1981 to 2019. Data was obtained from central bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin and world development indicator. Long run estimate illustrates that capital expenditure on education accelerates economic progress, recurrent expenditure on education does not explain economic growth andpopulation shrinks economic performance.Short run result also shows that capital expenditure on education is positive and significant in determining economic growth.On the contrary, recurrent expenditure on education do not impact significantly on economic growth. Therefore, based on the findings, the study recommends that in order to boost human capital and attain sustainable economic progress, budget allocation on capital expenditure on education should be increased and policy makers should design policies that will curb population growth such as limiting the number of child birth per couple and provision of free family planning tools.

Keywords: Human capital, trade, GDP, ARDL, Nigeria

1. Introduction
In order to achieve economic, social and political growth, there is the need for aqualitative human capital.The economies that grows fastsuch asChina, Japan, India, Korea, and the likes, even though their level of natural endowments is low,obtained economic growth because of their investment in human capitaldevelopment(Taiwo, Oluwatobi & Olurinola , 2016).Nigeria as a country is blessed with human resource. Oluwaseyi (2012) stated that in 2010, 53.8% of the country’s populace set up the economic active group, this is an indication that the country has the ability to build anaffluent economy, decrease poverty, provide health facilities, education and infrastructural facilities that her populace.All the same, poverty is increasing, infrastructural facilities are poor (particularly roads and power supply) which pave way to the breakdown of many industries, and has bring about high level of unemployment. In addition, macroeconomic indicators such as balance of payments, exchange rate, inflation rate, import obligations, and national savings make known that the country has not progressed well in the last couple of years (Ohwofasa, Obeh & Atumah, 2012).








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The Role of Pastors to Care for Their CongregationsBoth DuringCovid-19 Outbreak and After

International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) | Volume IV, Issue XII, December 2020 | ISSN 2454–6186

The Role of Pastors to Care for Their CongregationsBoth DuringCovid-19 Outbreak and After

Yanto Paulus Hermanto

Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Kharisma Bandung
Jl. Mekar Laksana No.8 Bandung, Jawa Barat Indonesia


Abstract: The role of pastors is very important to meet the needs of the congregation in the Covid-19 period and after. The formulation of the research problem is what pastors should do during a pandemic and afterwards for the congregation. The method to answer this problem formulation uses a qualitative approach by collecting several journals, books and Bible verses related to the formulation of the problem, then looking for similarities that allow it to answer this research problem. Thus, the correct answer is obtained and can be used as a guide for pastors during the Covid-19 period and after. There are five things that pastors can do from the results of this research that can meet the needs of the congregation both spiritually, the soul and physically.

Key words: Pastor’s Role, Covid-19, Spiritual Needs, Needs of the Soul, Physical Needs

During the current Covid-19 pandemic, there is a pattern of life that is different from before. So it is in the church. Pastors have difficulty how to keep paying attention and meeting the needs of their congregations properly. A church whose number of members is still small, of course, the problem is not too big compared to a church with thousands of members. However, there is a common problem, namely how the most effective way for the congregation to be shepherded properly in this pandemic condition.
Some pastors don’t know what to do in this time of pandemic. They want to make visits to the congregation, but the conditions are not possible. They made phone calls to the congregation, but it didn’t have a significant impact. Especially if the congregation has problems related to family relationships or financial problems or other problems that require special handling. This is the real problem for pastors who have the heart of a shepherd in this time of the pandemic.
In addition, the post-pandemic is a new challenge. Pastors must prepare strategies to have an impactful role for their congregations. The role of the post-pandemic pastor certainly has to be prepared from now on. If during a pandemic, pastors can play an effective role in caring for their congregations, then after the pandemic, the adjustment will be faster.






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Attitude of Students towards Elective Subject in M.A (Education)

International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) | Volume IV, Issue XII, December 2020 | ISSN 2454–6186

Attitude of Students towards Elective Subject in M.A (Education)

 Basanti Mahanta, Student, Department of Education, University of Kalyani
Dr.Bijan Sarkar, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, University of Kalyani


Researchers have decided to find out the students’ preference towards the selection of their Elective subject in M.A. in Education. This study is done by using descriptive survey method and researchers have analysed data in qualitative approach. 140 samples have taken from two Universities (University of Kalyani& West Bengal State University) of Education department. One questionnaire is framed by the researchers, which consists of 18 questions as the representative of eighteen reasons of subject preference. After data analysis, Researchers found that the majority of student prefers Educational Technology as their Elective subject.
Key Words:CBCS, Elective Subject, Core course.

1.0 Introduction:
According to the UGC recommendation, Choice Based Credit System has been introduced for all higher Education section in West Bengal. Now it is very popular and burning topic in educational aspect of West Bengal. In the CBCS policy of curriculum construction, elective subjects have offered for the students and students independently can choice any subject as per their own preference. Sometimes the term ‘Elective subject’ is used as ‘Optional Paper’. In CBCS, students have to learn some compulsory subject. But, they have also chance to select or choose their favourite subject with compulsory paper. In which Universities are going with CBCS, have to provide different Elective or Optional Subjects for the student. By searching different CBCS Curriculum in various Universities, Researchers found different Elective subject like- Educational Technology, Guidance & Counselling, Health Education, History of Education, Mental Hygiene, Measurement & Evaluation, Population & Environment Education, Teacher Education etc. Researchers want to know that in which Elective subject is more favourable to the students and in which reasons behind their subject preference. As the delimitation, researchers have considered only Education department in two Universities- University of Kalyani and West Bengal State University. And select the topic as-
‘Attitude of Students towards Elective Subject in M.A (Education)’.





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International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) | Volume VII, Issue XII, December 2020 | ISSN 2321–2705


 1Teshabaeva Shakhlo Abdurakhimovna, 2Mohammad Mahmoud Saleem Alzubi, 3Abdoulrahman Aljounaidi Al-Madinah International University 

Abstract: This study aims to suggest a model that will increase the usage of E-commerce services among students in Uzbekistan.The proposed model may facilitate the understanding of how certain factors can affect the level of usage of E-commerce services.The main objective of this study by working on a new model based on TAM technology acceptance model , Innovation Diffusion theory (IDT), Awareness (AF) factors relationship between the Perceived Usefulness (PU), Perceived Ease of Use (PEOU), Technology Factor (TECF) and compatibility with the Behavior Intention to use as a mediating . It presents a theoretical framework for the construction of hypotheses. The hypotheses were tested to obtain the findings that may be generalized afterwards. The primary data were collected from 384 valid questionnaires, which were distributed, to random Uzbek students in four universities. The analyses of the gathered data selected the Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Based on the research findings the final overall model was evaluated using the statistics and the acceptable fit of the measurement model to the data has been demonstrated. Based on the outcomes, the factors with the highest direct effect on Intention to use E- commerce appeared to be Attitude toward using E-commerce and the results show that compatibility negatively influences intention to use. The main findings of the study are: perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness, compatibility, trust and technology factor with awareness factor as mediating has a positive and significant impact on behavioral intention.
Keywords: Perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness, compatibility, trust and technology factor with awareness and behavioral intention.
The development of E-commerce has been part of the world-wide phenomenon that has seen major and significant changes in the way businesses operate, in how consumers affect their purchases, and in how governments function. Advances in communication technologies within the last decade of the twentieth century paved the way for innovations, promoting rapid globalization. The convergence of telecommunications and computer technology has given birth to a new business organizational system called the internet, presenting a revelation of ecological business development (R.G. Javalgi, 2005). New web technologies are offering companies unprecedented opportunities to rethink strategic business models, processes and relationships (Stephen Hawk. 2002). Internet business has a wide reach in pretty much every industry, where one of the most regularly utilized plans of action is the B2C E-Commerce (Laudon and Traver, 2008). Web based business when all is said in done improves a portion of the acquiring traits, for example the accessibility and the home conveyance, however it additionally forestall characteristics like investigation of the item before buy and ensured verified installment (Andonova, 2003), in this way trust is a significant and indispensable component for E-trade organizations to consider (Choi and Mai, 2018).
The true value from E-commerce offerings are shown through its services, hence effective customer support and service is vital for the E-commerce companies (Singh, 2002). E commerce in general does improve some of the purchasing attributes, e.g. the availability and the home delivery, but it also prevent attributes like inspection of the product before purchase and guaranteed secured payment (Andonova, 2003), thus trust is an important and vital element for E-commerce companies to consider (Choi & Mai, 2018). E-commerce is a product of Information and















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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) | Volume V, Issue XII, December 2020 | ISSN 2454–6186


  U.U. Elele1, *Azeh Yakubu1, Bala Ezekiel2, Alfred Gimba1
1Department of Chemistry, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Nigeria.
2Department of Microbiology, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Nigeria.


Abstract- Nanoclay was synthesized by hydration of local clay deposit samples, functionalized and characterized using Raman Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetry, Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) and Particle sizer. Samples were studied for their mineral types and in vitro antibacterial activities. The results proved significant for the classification of the studied clay deposits into natural healing or non-healing clays. Modification of nanoclay conferred antibacterial properties against clinical isolates: Escherichia Coli (E. Coli), Pseudomonas aeroginosa1 (Wound swab), Pseudomonas aeroginosa2 (Ear Swab), Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus Sp.Findings of the study showed that nanoclay was successfully synthesized as revealed by the pore width and volume in the range of 0.03675-5.349 nm and 0.03352-0.0914 cm3/g, with a BET surface area of 432.6 m2/g for the control sample (DNCC). Whereas Arginine/phenylalanine modified nanoclay had 0.03675-5.3490 nm and 0.005877-0.04399 cm3/g each with a BET SA of 102.1 m2/g and 310.3 m2/g respectively. The surface coverage by the two different organo-cations (Arg+, Phe+) were 76.4 and 28.3 % respectively. Study revealed that the deposits were composed of a mixture of clay minerals (quartz, crystallite, tridymite and opal, feldspar, hematite, Kaolinite and Illite). Absorption peak around 1774-1784 cm-1 was due to C=O stretch. The peak around 801-820 cm-1was due to modification. Degradation temperature range was from 450-800 oC. The novelty in this that the Nigerian clay sample from the Dogon-ruwa deposit exhibited no in vitro antibacterial activities. However, modification hugely enhanced the degree of antibacterial activities of the nanoclay. While Kaffin-koro nanoclay exhibited in vitro antibacterial activities and these were enhanced due to modification with amino acids. The study demonstrates that modification with appropriate organic cations could increase the antibacterial robustness of the studied clay deposits for useful biological applications.
Keyword: Synthesis, Nanoclay, Functionalization, Characterization, Antibacterial, Local deposit
I Introduction
A.Synthesis of Novel Materials
The development of novel materials with the ability to inhibit the growth of bacterial and disable them have been of great interest in recent years due to their potential use in everyday products like paints, kitchenware, school and hospital utensils. Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated a steady increase in infections due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria (Caitlin and Shelley, 2013).The trend in increasing antibiotic resistance demonstrates an ongoing need to develop novel therapeutic treatments for bacterial infections. Inorganic antibacterial agents have several advantages over traditionally used organic agents; like chemical stability, thermal resistance, safety to the user, long lasting action period, low-cost, availability and bio-degradability (Magana et al., 2008). Antibacterial inorganic materials are generally based in metallic ions with antibacterial properties





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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) | Volume V, Issue XII, December 2020 | ISSN 2454–6186


Henry Okwudili CHIBUDIKE1, Eze MGBACHIUZO1, Nelly Acha NDUKWE2,
Nkemdilim Ifeanyi OBI3,Olubamike Adetutu ADEYOJU4 and Eunice Chinedum CHIBUDIKE5

1Chemical, Fiber and Environmental Technology Department, Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Oshodi, F.I.I.R.O., Lagos-Nigeria
2Department of Chemical Sciences, College of Basic & Applied Sciences, Mountain Top University, Magoki, Ogun State, Lagos-Nigeria
3National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency (NOSDRA), Abuja-Nigeria
4Production, Analytical and Laboratory Management, Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Oshodi, F.I.I.R.O., Lagos-Nigeria
5Planning, Technology Transfer and Information Management, Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Oshodi, F.I.I.R.O., Lagos-Nigeria


In this research work, pulping trials were carried out using the MEA process. The operating conditions such as 50%, 75%, 100% MEA concentration, 150, 160, 170oC cooking temperature, and 60, 90, 120minutes cooking time at constant 4/1 liquor biomass ratio were investigated systematically to establish optimal pulping conditions. This paper investigates the effect of operational (independent) variables i.e. cooking temperature, cooking time, and liquor concentration at constant liquor-biomass ratio of 1/4 on pulp screened yield (dependent variable). By using a central composite factorial design (CCD), equation relating the dependent variable to the different independent variables was derived; which reproduced the experimental results for the dependent variable with errors less than 15%. The lignin content of EFB (18.29%) was low; indicating that EFB should be easier to pulp. The optimum cooking conditions for MEA pulping were 75% MEA concentration, 90 minutes cooking time, and 150°C cooking temperature. The laboratory-scale experimental results indicated that MEA-pulping process is particularly well suited for the pulping of agro-based fibers e.g. EFB of Oil Palm, which was delignified to a low kappa number value of 17.5, pulp yield of 54.73% and screen yield of 53.27% recording a reject of only 1.46%, indicating a good alternative to the Kraft pulping process because of its less polluting effect (environmental impact).

Keywords: Pulp Screened Yield; EFB of Oil Palm; Lignin, MEA-pulping, Kraft, Central Composite Design (CCD)


The chemical pulping strategies can be classified into two major principles namely; alkaline such as kraft process and soda process and acidic such as sulfite and bisulfite process. The kraft process is a modification of the soda process which utilizes sodium hydroxide (NaOH) with the addition of sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) into the cooking liquor system (Sjostrom, 1993; Smook, 1992). Sulfite pulping is a solubilization of lignin from cellulose as salts of lignosulfonic acid using mixtures of sulfurous acid (H2SO3) while bisulfite pulping uses bisulfite ion (HSO-3) (Casey, 1980; Smook, 1992). Besides, sulfite pulping also can be carried out in neutral and alkali medium and known as neutral and alkaline sulfite processes(Smook

















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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) | Volume V, Issue XII, December 2020 | ISSN 2454–6186


Aderonmu, Temitope S.B.1& Adolphus, Telima2
1University Demonstration Secondary School,University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.
2Department of Science Education,
Faculty of Education, Rivers State UniversityNkpolu-Oroworukwo,Port Harcourt.

The vision of every scientific community is the development of scientific literacy of its learners to proffer solutions to compelling scientific demands that is confronted in our everyday engagements. Acquisition of scientific literacy is a yardstick for societal development. Therefore, the study investigated students’ level of scientific literacy and academic performance in Physics concepts. The study adopted the Ex-post facto research design method using 246 SS 3 Physics students selected for the study by random sampling technique in Obio-Akpor Local Government Area of River State, Nigeria. Instruments for data collection were“Questionnaire on Scientific Literacy Assessment Template”(QSLAT) with reliability coefficient index of 0.79 and raw scores of SS 3 students for first term 2019/2020 session in Physics. Data was analyzed using Multiple Correlation Analysis (MCA), Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Scheffe post-hoc analysis at 0.05 level of significance. The study revealed that relationship between level of scientific literacy and students’ academic performance in Physics was statistically significant. Furthermore, the scientific literacy level of Physics students was low because most student were found to have their scientific literacy levels atthe Nominal Scientific Literacy (NSL) followed by Functional Scientific Literacy, Structural Scientific Literacy while Multi-Dimensional Scientific Literacy was the least. The study recommended that Physics teachers should adopt instructional strategies that will be devoid of rote memorization but encourage active engagement of students in enhancing scientific literacy among others.

Key words: Physics, Science, Literacy, Scientific Literacy, Performance.

The greatest power that man would ever yearn for is knowledge and understanding of the realities of basiccomponents of nature, while providing sound explanation using cause-effect relationship. Basic knowledge or literacy is a function of intellectual growth. Literacy is simply the fulcrum to knowledge development and understanding required to function actively in a society. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in 2017 stipulates that literacy involves a continuum of learning in enabling individuals to achieve their goals, to develop their knowledge and potential, and to participate fully in their community and wider society.From the perspective of mathematics, literacy connotes the degree of mastery of basics mathematical symbols and recognition of numbers. Literacy can be categorized into a spectrum consisting of basic literacy, cultural and civic literacy, functional literacy and scientific literacy.

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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) | Volume V, Issue XII, December 2020 | ISSN 2454–6186


Patrick Oluwafemi AKERELE
UnilorinCounsellingAnd Human Development Centre
University of Ilorin, Nigeria.
Department of Guidance and Counselling
AdekunleAjasin University,Akungba-Akoko
Ondo State, Nigeria


This study examines the influence of private schools’ cheap labour method (CLM) on the efficiency of secondary school education in Ilorin Metropolis, Data and information were obtained from respondents through questionnaires which were analyzed with the use of a percentage method .The findings of this study reveal that majority of the private schools’ owners in Ilorin metropolis have a negative attitude towards the efficiency of secondary school education and that low staff/teachers’ qualifications and poor staff/teachers’ salaries are the most common cheap labour method (CLM) used by private schools in Ilorin metropolis. It is therefore recommended that owners of private schools should ensure they employ their staff/teachers based on higher educational qualifications and expertise. Also, ensure that staff/teachers salaries are not delayed and government shouldensure that private schools owners follow standards and provision of operational guidelines for setting up of secondary schools.Be monitoring curriculum delivery in secondary schools.
Keywords:Cheap Labour Method, private schools, efficiency, secondary schools, education.

The greatest challenge facing Nigeria education appears to be that of rebuilding a high-quality educational system to develop appropriate skills, mental, physical,social abilities and competencies to empower individuals to live in and contribute positively to national growth and development. It seems pertinent that every nation’s educational output should be able to proffer solutions to the immediate and future needs of the society. This may be achieved only when education stakeholders in Nigeria deem it fit to pay more attention to teachers’ education and teachers’ total welfare (basically teachers’ remuneration). It appears necessary to submit that the last reviewed policy of education in Nigeria focused on developing every Nigerian child by
















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